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My grandkids are coming for a week and my daughter has asked me to keep them “off the grid,” except for emergencies. The kids (11 and 13) are glued to their phones and she feels their health is at risk. (She wasn’t concerned last summer when they arrived with their noses buried in tablets!) Is she overreacting?

Many experts don’t think so. Educators, athletic coaches, children’s counselors and doctors are beginning to link decreased attention spans, inability to stay focused, and irritability when devices are shelved with kids being unable to put the things down.

Ophthalmologists are concerned about increased eyestrain in young people who overuse screens. Viewing a digital screen often makes the eyes work harder.

You daughter isn’t the only parent worried. One Texas mother emailed me, “When I was a kid, I’d ask friends to come over to play. When my daughter invites friends, it’s like she’s said, ‘Come over so we can silently look at our phones together.’ It’s just crazy.”

A recent poll from Common Sense Media reveals that half of teenagers surveyed “feel addicted” to their mobile devices. Fifty-nine percent of their parents said they agree.

The results suggest that parents and kids are concerned about the impact mobile devices have on day-to-day life. Seventy-two percent of teens and 48 percent of parents feel the need to immediately respond to texts and other notifications; 69 percent of parents and 78 percent of teens check their devices at least hourly.

One-half of parents and one-third of kids polled said they very often or occasionally try to reduce the amount of time they spend on devices. Approximately one-third of both parents and teens said they argue about mobile device use daily. Sixty-six percent of parents and teens said mobile devices are not allowed at the dinner table.

“Mobile devices are fundamentally changing how families go about their day-to-day lives, be it doing homework, driving or having dinner together,” said James Steyer, founder and CEO of Common Sense. Usage “is causing daily conflict in homes,” while “families are concerned about the consequences. We also know that problematic media use can negatively affect children’s development and that multitasking can harm learning and performance.”

Common Sense has issued a white paper with survey results and recommendations. “Technology Addiction: Concern, Controversy and Finding Balance” discusses — among other things — how multitasking and toggling between multiple screens can impair children’s ability to lay down memories, learn, focus and work effectively.

It also addresses technology’s impact on conversations. Michael Robb, Common Sense’s director of research, said that this is “really important for social and emotional development. We need better long-term measures of how device use is impacting people’s ability to empathize.”

Instead of relying on devices, enjoy going off the grid with your grandkids. Get outside; go camping; have conversations; try a new sport; cook up a storm; engage in painting or sculpture; volunteer where you’re needed (would a preschool like a mural repainted?); visit local attractions; take the kids to lunch with interesting people. Stuck at home on a rainy day? Teach them a challenging card game or chess. Catch a movie at the multiplex. Your daughter won’t mind; the screen is big and the movie is sure to start some interesting conversations afterward!

My 10-year-old daughter, Marilee, can text up a storm, but can’t write a book report or a two-paragraph description of an event. She’s a pretty good reader, but her teacher says her writing skills need improvement. Are there fun ways to practice writing that work?

There are, and you can both enjoy them. Young writers need to learn many skills that are intuitive to most adults. They need to articulate the purpose of the writing; organize ideas, think about spelling, punctuation, grammar and word choices; then edit and revise. And do all this while staying on topic. It’s not easy!

First, do some reading on how schools teach writing. Most use “the writing process,” which has five steps: prewriting (brainstorming, deciding purpose and goals); writing (getting that first draft down); revising and editing (clarifying); rewriting (typing or writing the final draft) and publishing (reaching an audience). That audience might be her aunt receiving a letter or her Girl Scout troop that reads a report she’s written on badge completion. Learn more at ReadWriteThink, an online resource for teaching reading and writing: http://tinyurl.com/22novvv.

Write for a reason: Make Marilee the family communications director. Get her a business card and notepads with that title. Make it her job to write all family communications this summer: invitations for parties, lists and instructions for a campout, thank-you notes and birthday cards to family and friends and so on. This will help her think about purpose, message and audience.

Review what you love: It’s fun to read reviews; it’s often more fun to write them. Have Marilee review books, movies, music and games. Find good models by TIME For Kids kid reporters at timeforkids.com. Have her share her reviews with family and friends.

Connect with pen pals: Find them through Student Letter Exchange (pen-pal.com), one of the world’s largest pen pal organizations. For a deeper experience, sign up for PenPal Schools, an online interactive community that connects learners across cultures to discuss global issues while practicing language skills during six-week sessions on different topics. While designed for schools, parents can get a class code. Go to penpalschools.com.

Get writing coaching online: Students enrolled in Brain Chase, a fun online summer program, can sign up for its Creative Writing Challenge and get weekly grade-level feedback from credentialed writing instructors. Go to brainchase.com.

Learn from a best-selling writer: Newbery Honor-winner Patricia Reilly Giff, author of many popular children’s books, walks young readers through the process of writing compelling fiction using examples from her work in “Writing With Rosie” (Holiday House, 2016), arriving in bookstores later this summer.

Start a summer scrapbook: To improve storytelling and reporting skills, encourage Marilee to create a scrapbook (digital or paper) about events, neighborhood observations, vacations and so on. Add photos with descriptive captions. Many kids prefer paper. There’s something uniquely satisfying about leafing through pages of memories — ticket stubs and other regalia included — at the end of the summer.

We have a newly blended family thanks to a recent marriage. My husband and I have different views about school for our teens. I’m casual. He’s strict, causing family tension. The school counselor suggests we work over the summer to “better align” our expectations. Where should we go for help?

Blended families are filled with joy — and usually challenges. It’s confusing for kids when parents and stepparents have differing expectations.

“Generally speaking, the issues are rarely either/or black or white,” says Stephen Gray Wallace, author and founder of the nonprofit Center for Adolescent Research and Education (ecareforkids.org). “It’s not a question of whether to have expectations for each other’s children with regard to schoolwork; it’s about having the right ones.”

Make a list of your differing expectations: Do you differ on how much screen time the kids get? Whether to take them out of school for long weekends? To demand A’s or accept C’s? Talk them through with each other, then with your teens to try to strike a balance.

“It is also important to remember that doing well in school is but one metric of success we generally hope for our children,” says Wallace. “Don’t get hung up on whether this assignment was handed in, or who studies with the TV on. What matters most is daily face-to-face conversation. I call it ’serve and return’ parenting that allows teens time and space to talk with you and surface things that may be bothering them.”

To get a broader perspective, Wallace suggests three books:

– “Teach Your Children Well” by Madeleine Levine (Harper Perennial, 2013). Levine’s view is that “while we all hope that our children will do well in school, we hope with even greater fervor that they will do well in life. Our job is to help them … be resilient in the face of adversity, to approach the world with zest … and to hold a deep belief that they have something meaningful to contribute to the world.”

– “Love That Boy: What Two Presidents, Eight Road Trips, and My Son Taught Me About a Parent’s Expectations” by Ron Fournier (Harmony Books, 2016). The author identifies distinct styles of parenting: indulgent, authoritarian, authoritative and uninvolved. “Each differs in the extent to which it is ‘demanding’ and ‘responsive,’” says Wallace. “Authoritative parents tend to fare best in eliciting the types of behavior they seek because they are clear about their expectations, but also engage their children in dialogue so that they can understand the rationale behind the rules.”

– “Age of Opportunity: Lessons from the New Science of Adolescence” by Laurence Steinberg (Mariner Books, 2015). The book spells out clearly the new research on how adolescent brains work and suggests ways to instill self-control and responsibility during teenage years.

You might ask your pediatrician to direct you to a family therapist or marriage counselor who can help sort out differing expectations, says Wallace.

“A couple I know took this route with their blended family of eight,” he explains. “The parents learned techniques to steer the new ’ship.’ While it took longer for the kids to get on board, they did and are all successfully launched in their adult lives now.”

My 20-year-old niece, a college student, will take care of our girls this summer. They’re going into fifth and sixth grade. I want them to have fun and practice a few academic skills, so they don’t forget what they learned this year. Do you have any suggestions?

You’re smart to want to keep their skills sharp. Summer learning loss is real for many students. The trick is to integrate their newly learned skills into daily life, says Bill Laraway, who was recognized as the 2015 Teacher of the Year in the Evergreen Unified School District in San Jose, California.

“Don’t buy a bunch of workbooks,” he explains. “Let the girls practice in concrete ways.”

Take advantage of everyday projects such as buying a new fan during a heat spell. Have them research prices and models. Or plan something unique, such as starting a family blog.

Use four teaching principles, says Laraway:

– Demonstrate problem-solving steps. “Fifth- and sixth-grade math is full of common multiple-step problems that adults solve automatically each day,” he says. “Students need to learn them. For example, say you’re thinking of carpeting a room. Walk the girls through each step by probing and discussing: How can we figure out how much carpet we need? What is the best way to measure? How is carpet sold? Does choosing a pattern change the amount we need? And so on.

“Have them write down steps, reordering them as new information becomes available. Test their answers.”

– Let them do the work. If, for example, the girls want to go to a movie, make them responsible for the research. They’ll want to find out what’s playing and check the reviews. They’ll have to consider how long will it take to get there as well as how much the tickets, food and transportation will cost.

“Adults make these calculations quickly,” says Laraway. “Resist the temptation to figure things out for them. When asking questions, allow plenty of time to answer.”

– Reinforce the basics. By now the girls should have achieved “automaticity” with addition, subtraction, multiplication and division so that they can manipulate the numbers without paper and pencil. If you ask, “How much will it cost if we need two adult tickets at $6.50 and two under 12 at $5?” they should be able to do it in their heads. If not, find math fact games.

By the end of fifth grade, they should be fluent readers with strong comprehension skills. Reading aloud and discussing a compelling book also helps and boosts oral language.

– Document, reflect and share. “Learning sticks when kids see that they’ve made a difference,” says Laraway, “so I encourage ways to demonstrate this. For example, if the girls organize a neighborhood tag sale with proceeds going to a local animal shelter, have them keep journals. Make a scrapbook of items such as the poster promoting it, photos from the sale and taking earnings to the shelter. Before school starts, review and reflect on the fun they’ve had and the good they’ve done!”

For guidance on grade-level topics, take a look at two books: “What your Fifth Grader Needs to Know” (Delta, 2006) and “What Your Sixth Grader Needs to Know” (Delta, 2007).

Our school librarian sent home a list of books to encourage summer reading. I was surprised to see picture books on the third-grade list. She also recommended “reading to and with your children, even if they can read independently.” Isn’t that babying them?

When it comes to encouraging kids to read, use every tool at hand. This is especially true during the summer months, when kids’ skills hit the snooze button. According to the National Summer Learning Association, students typically score lower on standardized tests at the end of summer vacation than they do on the same tests at the beginning of the summer. (Go to summerlearning.org for more information.)

Of course you want to encourage independent reading, but there is nothing babyish about continuing to read to children once they’ve cracked the code. The 2015 Scholastic Kids & Family Reading Report shows that 80 percent of surveyed children ages 6 to 17 say that they still like it when parents read with them, because it means spending special time with family.

A quarter-century ago, educator Jim Trelease wrote “The Read-Aloud Handbook” to encourage parents to set aside quality time each evening to read to their children. “It became a best-seller because it promoted the pleasures of families enjoying good books together,” says Carl Harvey, a school library consultant who teaches librarianship at Longwood University in Virginia.

Reading aloud with your kids offers many benefits, says Harvey. Among them:

– It’s enjoyable. When kids connect reading with pleasure, they want to read more.

– It helps stir kids’ imaginations. Unlike a movie, they have to envision the setting from the words they hear.

– It prompts family discussions — great for oral language development.

– It hones their listening skills and their ability to focus, a good thing in these days of constant digital distractions.

– It models what fluent reading sounds like.

– It builds vocabulary not by memorization, but by using new words in context. It also naturally introduces kids to words well above their reading level. For example, reading a biography of an astronaut introduces the language and acronyms of space exploration.

– It builds important background knowledge that boosts reading comprehension. This is especially true with nonfiction. For example, an article in Wired magazine about virtual reality that allows people to work together via 3-D avatars may be well beyond the reach of a newly independent reader, but it may be awe-inspiring to a third-grade listener.

And what about picture books recommended for third graders?

“Parents should know that picture books aren’t just for pre-readers,” says Harvey. “Many nonfiction picture books are appropriate for older audiences. Sure, they have great photos and illustrations, but most are also packed with valuable information in the captions and text. Some librarians buy them for high school collections because they are great ways to introduce a topic such as astronomy or ocean life.”

When school’s out, make family reading time a daily part of kids’ summer vacation. “There’s a big payoff academically, socially and emotionally for kids,” says Harvey.

A neighbor and I want to give our five kids (ages 8, 10 and 11) science experiences this summer, as we can’t afford camps at nearby colleges. How can we plan something valuable across those age ranges?

Summer is a wonderful time for family-led science activities. Schedules are more flexible; you can take a deep dive into hands-on projects, and no one has to stop and put away the materials as they would in school. Plus, you can take field trips to visit professionals who work in science-related careers.

For a summer filled with science, take three steps, says Allison Duarte, a middle school educator who designs science curriculum for New York City’s Harlem Academy.

First, choose a stack of nonfiction children’s books that match kids’ interests. “While it may sound counterintuitive, start with reading,” Duarte explains. “Nonfiction introduces key concepts through developmentally appropriate storytelling and photos or illustrations. Introduce ‘academic vocabulary’ (that) kids need to understand the topic, build background for further study and reinforce literacy skills.”

For example, do your kids want to study birds? The book “Birdology: 30 Activities and Observations for Exploring the World of Birds” (Chicago Review Press, 2015) shows them how to spot birds almost anywhere and gets them to analyze, write about and draw what they see. It teaches essential vocabulary such as “migration,” “nesting,” “territories” and “preservation.”

“Read science books with your children to check for understanding and prompt conversations that lead to questions about the book’s topic,” suggests Duarte.

Ask your kids’ teachers or a children’s librarian to recommend titles. Or choose from recommended science books for grades K-12 published annually by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and the Children’s Book Council: nsta.org/publications/ostb/.

Second, conduct experiments that help them develop the skills to carry out scientific investigations independently. “Guide them through the scientific process: question, hypothesis, materials, procedure, results and conclusion,” advises Duarte. “Have them keep a science journal to reinforce observation and recording skills. At the conclusion of each experiment, ask children to share their results and suggest a follow-up experiment.”

To find experiments, Duarte recommends two books that yield quality results, offering clear protocols with illustrations and using everyday materials: “Kitchen Science Lab for Kids: 52 Family-Friendly Experiments From Around the House” (Quarry Books, 2014) and “The Everything Kids’ Science Experiments Book” (Adams Media Corporation, 2001).

Third, plan field trips. “Exploring museums and nature centers is a valuable economical way to share science with kids,” says Duarte. “Many museums offer free classes or drop-in experiences with scientists. Check the museum’s website for suggestions on how to make the most of the experience before, during and after the visit.”

She also encourages getting kids “off the grid” and into natural settings. “This encourages environmental stewardship and scientific inquiry about the natural world,” says Duarte. For example, hike the same trail several times. Have children record close observations about trees, animals, sounds and weather. How does one habitat differ from another? What’s the same and what’s different?

By providing summer science activities, “you invest in your children’s continued growth as scientists and scholars,” says Duarte. “As a bonus, not only will kids love the special time together, you may learn something new!”

My daughter, a rising college senior, finds volunteer tutoring very satisfying. She will graduate in January and wants to apply for a two-year stint at Teach For America. I think she should start her real career upon graduation. How can I convince her?

What if her real career turns out to be teaching? Or a position inspired by her Teach For America (TFA) experience? Teaching is still an appealing career choice and a great foundation for other professions. Many of the 40,000 TFA alumni now work in related fields, many in leadership positions.

Take Eddy Hernandez Perez, for instance. His assignment was teaching fifth grade in San Antonio. Through his teaching success he got to advise then-Mayor Julian Castro on education policy and helped start Leadership SAISD, a nonprofit program that works on behalf of students in the San Antonio school district. He eventually got his master’s degree in education at Harvard and is set to graduate law school at the University of Texas next May. Hard to argue with that career path!

Laura Smith, a high school math teacher in Dayton, Ohio, is completing her two-year TFA commitment and weighing a third. “My degree is in accounting, and I love to teach math,” she says. “One day I’d like to combine those skills in a way that uses data to help narrow the opportunity gap, one of our nation’s toughest problems.”

They have some advice for your daughter: Apply to TFA because of your passion. Are you doing this for students and to learn the skill of teaching? If not, then rethink your priorities.

“Don’t use TFA as a break between college and grad school,” says Smith. “The work is hard. You’ll struggle to focus on your students if you’re only passionate about studying for the LSAT.”

Assess your adaptability. TFA doesn’t put you where you want to go. If accepted, TFA sends you where you’re needed.

Prep well to apply: While applications have dipped from the 2013 high of more than 57,000, getting in remains competitive. Prepare yourself by talking with alumni and principals in schools with TFA teachers.

“If you can’t stay excited throughout the application process, decide on a different route,” says Smith.

Expect tough challenges. If accepted, you’ll need to prove yourself to students and colleagues. You’ll get good support from TFA, but you need large stores of resilience and stamina.

And now here’s some advice for you, Mom. Some form of service to the country helps young people get to know themselves and what they’re made of. It helps define their professional personalities, and they learn what motivates them. They also develop insight and leadership skills. If your daughter decides to apply, be thrilled you’ve raised such a mature young woman.

Find TFA application deadlines at teachforamerica.org.

Our elementary school is quashing creativity. A group of us parents thinks the lack of arts education, field trips and the like squeezes the joy out of learning. We aren’t opposed to tests, and we don’t want to home-school our kids; we just want a better elementary experience. How hard is it to start a charter school?

It’s hard. That doesn’t mean your group shouldn’t pursue it. Just don’t plan for it to open this fall. Charters are places to try out new methods. Some will succeed; others won’t.

When Mary Mitchell, the late co-founder of New York City’s successful Girls Prep, was asked about starting a charter, she’d advise: “Prepare for more homework than you can imagine, and be ready to jump myriad hurdles. Study the data on what makes a charter school successful long-term. Build in accountability from the start. Fill your planning group with people who will go the distance. It’s a marathon.”

The planning group’s job is to articulate a clear vision and identify people and resources to bring your school into being. That vision should spell out the school’s core beliefs and its instructional and management processes. Show the mission, costs and timeline to key parent, educator and civic constituencies. This helps refine the application and anticipate potential funders’ questions. Know your state’s rules, process and timeline for charter applications.

Be able to clearly define the educational need you’re meeting. Florida parent Richard Busto helped lead a team that founded the successful charter Renaissance Learning Center for elementary-age students with autism spectrum disorders. They also founded the Renaissance Learning Academy, a nonprofit high school, as a transition from the Learning Center. The Learning Academy’s mission was clear from the start: Help prepare students ages 14 to 21 with autism spectrum disorders for life after school.

You may not have to start a charter to get more of what you’re looking for. Teachers also regret the loss of time for the arts, project-based learning and other activities that make school fun. “Most educators will welcome a parent initiative that can help add programs that motivate students and add richness to the offerings,” says Tim Sullivan, the president and founder of PTOToday.com. These may be after school, on weekends or during school vacations.

“Family engagement covers a lot of ground,” says Sullivan. “From helping create a new playground and ensuring a budget for field trips to working with educators to tweak a curriculum to offer more arts, STEM or other content a community wants.”

Ken Robinson, Ph.D., the co-author of “Creative Schools: The Grassroots Revolution That’s Transforming Education” (Viking, 2015) encourages parents to engage with educators.

Robinson is famous for his TED Talk, “Do Schools Kill Creativity?” He notes that recent efforts such as the U.S. Department of Education’s 2013 family engagement report, “A Dual Capacity-Building Framework for Family–School Partnerships,” and the PTA’s “National Standards for Family-School Partnerships” spell out principles that foster win-win collaborations.

Clarify your group’s goals and approach the principal and other key educators in your elementary school (including the PTO or PTA leadership). What you’re seeking may be within easier reach than starting a charter school from scratch.

My eighth-grade son wants to go into a new program his high school will offer that has a technical-career focus. My husband loves the idea. My son is a B-minus student at best, but I’d still like to see him graduate from college. (His older brother dropped out.) Doesn’t vocational education narrow students’ options?

The disappearing middle class and many of the jobs that sustained it have educators and policymakers looking at this very question. Districts and states are ditching your granddad’s “voc-ed” to create a more successful approach that expands students’ options.

Michael J. Petrilli, president of the nonprofit education think tank the Thomas B. Fordham Institute, points out that career-technical education (CTE) is not a path away from college, but another pathway into postsecondary education. With CTE, Petrilli writes on the institute’s blog, districts can create “coherent pathways, beginning in high school, into authentic technical education options at the post-secondary level. … These arrangements not only provide access to workplaces where students can apply their skills, they also offer seamless transitions into post-secondary education, apprenticeships and employer-provided learning opportunities.”

Petrilli cites the findings from a recently released new study from the institute, “Career and Technical Education in High School: Does It Improve Student Outcomes?” The study collected data on Arkansas high school students and found that “students with greater exposure to CTE are more likely to graduate, enroll in a two-year college, be employed and have higher wages.”

In other words, high-quality CTE provides a route to the middle class.

What defines high quality, and what should you look for in your son’s CTE program? The Association for Career and Technical Education recently published a draft framework identifying some of the characteristics of high-quality programs (for more information, go to acteonline.org):

– Courses should align with appropriate grade, district, state or national standards to ensure competency in reading, science and math. They should also align with industry-validated technical standards.

– Students should be able to progress seamlessly without remediation or duplication and have access throughout to career guidance.

– Students should have multiple opportunities to demonstrate their learning and get continuous feedback. There should be processes that assess program effectiveness over time.

– To be effective, the staff must be prepared; the facilities should reflect today’s workplace.

– Teachers should use motivating techniques such as project-based learning, relevant equipment and technology, and real-world scenarios.

– There should be a continuum that progresses from workplace tours to internships and onto apprenticeships.

– Programs must be offered to all students and support services provided when needed. There should be no barriers to work-based learning or post-secondary credits.

– Students should have opportunities to foster connections to professionals and activities that advance their goals.

The current way of thinking, “bachelor’s degree or bust,” often means “a young person drops out of college at age 20 with no post-secondary credential, no skills and no work experience, but a fair amount of debt,” writes Petrilli in an article on the nonprofit Brookings Institute website. “That’s a terrible way to begin adult life.”

At the last grading period, my son Jamal’s third-grade teacher was concerned about his reading. She suggested home activities and summer school. I think he’ll catch up on his own. Kids don’t all learn to read at the same time, so why is this a problem?

It may not be a problem, but the data doesn’t favor Jamal. Many studies show that being able to read well by the end of third grade means that children do much better in all subjects from fourth grade onward.

There’s a saying in education circles, says Kristin Calder, CEO of the Literacy Coalition of Palm Beach County (Florida): “‘In the first three grades, children learn to read. In fourth grade, they read to learn.’ Students need strong vocabulary and comprehension skills to read science, math and social studies texts. How can you attack a word problem if you can’t read the words? Or understand a science lesson on weather if you struggle (to read the word) lightning? Not being able to keep up with subject matter accelerates a cycle of failure that can lead to dropping out.”

Cracking the code by the time a student enters fourth grade is so important that many U.S. cities have joined with school districts in a formal Campaign for Grade-Level Reading, says Calder. “Third grade is a pivot point. In Palm Beach County, we make achieving this literacy milestone a major part of our work.”

Take your son’s teacher’s concerns to heart. Carve out time each day to focus on reading at home. Divide it into independent reading and reading to him.

– Read a few pages of a compelling book, such as a “Harry Potter” novel, to Jamal each night. Stop at a spellbinding spot guaranteed to make him eager to hear more.

– Get him a library card and work with the librarian to find titles that match his interests. What topics get Jamal excited? Football? Animals? Humor? Check out a stack each week.

– Try humor. Don’t worry if he’s still stuck on “Captain Underpants” books. At least he’s reading. Find lots of books he might like on guysread.com, a site founded by best-selling children’s book author Jon Scieszka that is dedicated to encouraging boys to read.

– Access digital resources. Most libraries offer Internet access to their collections to download on a tablet or phone. Check out podcasts, too. Favorites include TED Talks for kids and family, and PBS Kids. Find educational games and apps reviewed at Common Sense Media’s graphite.org.

– Add a dose of nonfiction. Atlases, children’s almanacs, field guides and other “fun facts” books are easy for readers to get into. Consider subscriptions to magazines such as Popular Science, National Geographic Kids or Sports Illustrated for Kids.

– Enroll Jamal in summer classes. “There’s so much evidence of learning loss during vacation, that many schools welcome kids — whether they are struggling or not — into summer classes,” says Calder. “The program should give him even more opportunities to practice his reading skills.”

– Keep up the family reading time at home. As summer approaches, it’s tempting to let it go. Don’t. Jamal needs this “power assist” to do well in fourth grade. Be sure to also monitor his use of video games and other non-reading-related digital media, so he doesn’t get distracted.

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